ARTICLE
TITLE

THE IMPACT OF ZERO IMPORT TARIFF POLICY AND AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL ACTION PLAN ON INDONESIAN COAL EXPORT TO CHINA

SUMMARY

Indonesia dan Tiongkok merupakan pelaku utama perdagangan batu bara dunia. Indonesia adalah eksportir batu bara terbesar dan pemasok utama kebutuhan batu bara Tiongkok, sedangkan Tiongkok adalah importir batu bara terbesar di dunia. Kebijakan tarif impor nol persen pada komoditas batu bara yang diterapkan Tiongkok pada Januari 2008, berdampak pada meningkatnya ekspor batu bara Indonesia ke Tiongkok. Namun, setelah Tiongkok mengeluarkan kebijakan Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan, ekspor batu bara Indonesia ke Tiongkok mulai menurun pada tahun 2014. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh kebijakan tarif impor nol persen dan Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan terhadap ekspor batu bara Indonesia ke Tiongkok. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis intervensi multi input. Data yang digunakan berasal dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kebijakan tarif impor nol persen yang diterapkan oleh Tiongkok memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan positif dan permanen terhadap ekspor batu bara Indonesia ke Tiongkok. Sementara itu, kebijakan Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan negatif dan permanen. Rekomendasi kebijakan adalah implementasi kebijakan tentang standar minimum kualitas batu bara yang dihasilkan. Dengan demikian, kualitas ekspor batu bara Indonesia dapat menyesuaikan spesifikasi permintaan pasar dari negara pengimpor yang menerapkan kebijakan pengendalian pencemaran udara. Indonesia and China are the main actors of world coal trading. Indonesia is the largest coal exporter and the main supplier of Chinese coal needs, while China is the world's largest coal importer. The zero import tariff policy on coal commodities applied by China in January 2008, has an impact on increasing Indonesian coal exports to China. However, after China issued its policy of Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan, Indonesian coal exports to China began to decline in 2014. The objective of this research is to study the influence of zero import tariff policy and Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan to the Indonesian coal exports to China. The method used in this research is the multi-input intervention analysis. Data used are developed from BPS. The results show that the zero import tariff policy applied by China has significantly positive and permanent effect on Indonesian coal exports to China. Meanwhile, the policy of Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan has significantly negative and permanent effect. Policy recommendation is the implementation of policy about minimum standards of coal quality that may be produced. Thus, Indonesian coal exports quality will able to adjust market demand specification from importing countries that implement policies about pollution control.

 Articles related

Sukarna Wiranta    

Small businesses in Indonesia have a critical role in national economy, judging from the number of companies and workers involved in the business. Based on the data from the Board of Statistics (CBS) in 2006, has shown that small and mediu... see more


Abuzar Asra    

during 2000-2009, Indonesia’s export of labor intensive primary commodities grew faster than the growth of Indonesia’s total export, indicating its increasing role in Indonesia’s trade. Most of this export went to three countries: Japan, Americ... see more


Ferry Samuel Jacob    

Trade relation between Indonesia and china has faced a certainty constraint. It emeged when the government of Indonesia and China at almost the same time released a public warning and import restriction from each country, there is a worry it would become... see more


Ernawati Munadi    

The palm oil Industry is an important sector in the Indonesian economiy as it is one of the country’s major export earners as well as food source for her population.Indonesia is the world second largest producer of palm oil after Malaysia, accounting for... see more


Alternativas de tratamientos en el cáncer de próstata en Pinar del Río, 2003-2006 / Alternative of treatments in prostate cancer in Pinar del Río, 2003-2006Alternativas de tratamientos en el cáncer de próstata en Pinar del Río, 2003-2006 / Alternative of treatments in prostate cancer in Pinar del Río, 2003-2006Los científicos tienen ideas controvertidas en cuanto a las diferentes formas de tratamiento en el cáncer de próstata y están explorando programas de tratamientos nuevos y formas de combinarlos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, longitudinal, retrospectivo y descriptivo en la Provincia de Pinar del Río, en el  periodo comprendido 1ro. de enero de 2003 al 31 de diciembre de 2006. En la investigación se incluyeron a todos los pacientes que continuaron su seguimiento en consultas de uro-oncología; un total de 265 pacientes para ver la evolución de los mismos a través del antígeno prostático específico. Para precisar el grado de homogeneidad del comportamiento de las variables en una tabla de distribución de frecuencia, se calculó el  intervalo de confianza, encontrando como principales resultados, que existe un número de diagnosticados en el año 2004 y ha existido disminución de los diagnósticos, mientras se ha logrado una mayor asistencia a consultas. Primó el tratamiento bloqueo androgénico total. En  este tipo de tratamiento existe  un  PSA normal en la mayoría de los pacientes a los 6 meses de tratamiento, concluyendo que del total de pacientes que asistieron a consulta y se trataron con bloqueo androgénico total, la mayoría normaliza el PSA a los 6 meses, siendo este más efectivo en el cáncer de la próstata.Palabras Clave: PRÓSTATA, DIAGNÓSTICO, REHABILITACIÓN.ABSTRACTScientists have controversial ideas regarding the different choices of treatment for prostate cancer and are exploring new treatment programs and combining ways. An observation, longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive research was conducted in Pinar del Rio during January 1st, 2003 to December 31st, 2006. All patients following the treatment in the office of urology-oncology were included in the research, the evolution of a total of 265 patients was observed trough the value of Specific Prostatic Antigen. To precise the degree of homogeneity in the behavior of the variables a table to distribute frequency was drawn, calculating confidence interval; main results showed that: a number of patients were diagnosed during 2004, a decrease in diagnosis; however attendance to the offices increased. Total Androgenic Blocking Therapy prevailed. During this type of treatment the SPA presents a normal value; the majority of patients achieve normal SPA at 6 months, being this therapy the most effective in prostate cancer.Key words: PROSTATE, DIAGNOSIS, REHABILITATION.

Pedro Ricardo Hernández Campo,Ileana de Armas Ampudia,Idelma Castillo García,Verónica Castillo Pérez,Teresita Llera Clausell    

ABSTRACTScientists have controversial ideas regarding the different choices of treatment for prostate cancer and are exploring new treatment programs and combining ways. An observation, longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive research was conducted i... see more